This newsletter is being written while
en route to Washington, DC in response to an invitation
to attend a State Dinner at the White House to welcome South
African President Mbeki on his first official visit to the
United States. We
are excited to be included in this event to commemorate
a very important visit for President Mbeki and for more
than 40 million South Africans who must have understanding
and support from a broad spectrum of American leadership
if there is to be commitment of intellectual, technological
and financial capital sufficient to sustain this emerging
new democracy, half-way around the world.
Why should Americans care about what happens in South
are Black African cultures so confusing to the Western eye?
Who is responsible for our invitation to this event
and why have we been included?
It is humbling to
be included and it causes one to wonder.
Perhaps it is because Amy═s commitment to South Africa═s
democratic struggle resonates today with informed people
who recognize that South Africa═s struggle is far from over.
Perhaps it is because someone close to the White
House knew and respected Amy and her work. Perhaps someone appreciates the points of uniqueness
in the work of the Amy Biehl Foundation in South Africa═s
Regardless of the
reasons for our invitation, we are proud to be included
and to have Amy and her Foundation recognized for their
support of South Africa═s past and present democratic struggles;
for their role in building bridges.
WHY SHOULD AMERICANS
CARE ABOUT SOUTH AFRICA?
Thank God for Nelson
Mandela, Steve Biko and Desmond Tutu.
Without them and their well-publicized moral leadership,
most Americans would likely know South Africa as a far-away
source of gold, diamonds and political tyranny.
Some of us would recognize South Africa for its long-standing,
official denial of human rights for its majority population
on the basis of race, alone.
were studying Asia and the Soviet Union, Amy was studying
Africa Ă sub-Saharan Africa, in particular.
Amy used to tell us that Africa was the ˝continent
of the futureţ. Amy
was drawn by the numerous democratic struggles throughout
the continent. She
knew that these emerging democracies would awaken and transform
a sleeping giant.
She recognized that
-- because of its economic sophistication and developed
infrastructure Ă a democratic South Africa could become
the dominant player in an African transformation.
This realization Ă coupled with the depth and breadth
of human rights abuse Ă took Amy to South Africa.
In her life, Amy worked
hard and thoughtfully for a new South Africa.
She admonished fellow Americans to listen and to
moderate their tendency to express their opinions Ă for
they were not generally trusted by South Africans.
In her death Amy created a new American awareness
of South Africa and its struggle Ă a new consciousness of
the depths of human denial and of the raw potential of a
The awareness reached
its peak as millions of Americans watched as Nelson Mandela
took the oath of office as President of the Republic of
It was a compelling story then, and should be today.
But, as the world concluded the struggle was over,
interest and support began to wane and continues to diminish
Clearly, if South
Africa═s new democracy should fail, its leadership in the
transformation of the African continent will be lost.
This will be unfortunate for the free world and tragic
for some 30 million disadvantaged South Africans, whose
prospects for human realization will be lost once again.
As the Amy Biehl Foundation,
we see a very basic -- yet very important -- rationale for
involvement in South Africa.
We view South Africa as an empty canvas on which
to create innovative human empowerment and violence prevention
programs in partnership with the nation═s most disadvantaged
persons. In an environment which is relatively free of government
Ăcreated restrictions and where the US Dollar enjoys tremendous
strength and buying power, it is possible to innovate with
minimum financial risk.
So, at the same time
we can help disadvantaged South Africans to empower themselves
and prevent youth violence, we can develop strategies and
programs which can be migrated successfully to disadvantaged
communities in America.
This makes our investments
in violence prevention innovation in South Africa productive
for disadvantaged South Africans and ultimately of value
to disadvantaged Americans.
They ability to produce this double return on human
empowerment program investment in South Africa is an excellent
reason for our Foundation to be active there.
Former USAID Administrator, Brian Atwood, used to
describe this phenomenon as ˝programs without boundariesţ.
We view it as specifically targeted value-added return
for our investor partners.
WHY ARE BLACK AFRICAN
CULTURES CONFUSING TO THE WESTERN EYE?
As President Mbeki
approached his important State visit to America, he faced
considerable confusion with regard to his public positions
of seeming-denial of the catastrophic impact of HIV and
AIDS on the people of South Africa.
This confusion extended to the halls of Congress
and expressed itself publicly in the decision not to extend
an invitation to address a joint session of Congress to
visiting President Mbeki.
During our visit to
Washington, we have been questioned continuously by members
of Congress, their aides, officials of US government and
private citizens with interest in Southern Africa about
President Mbeki═s positions with regard to the HIV/AIDS
epidemic which is ravaging South Africa and its disadvantaged
Black population, in particular.
In each case, we begin
with the obvious: we cannot know what is on President Mbeki═s
mind and nor can we pretend to speak on his behalf.
However, it is our sincere opinion that some of our
national confusion and inability to understand Thabo Mbeki
on this critical issue is rooted in his Black African cultural
background and in the politics which surround him.
Linda calls it ˝peeling
the onionţ. Just
when we believe we have reached an understanding of some
facet of Black African behavior, during our daily work in
South Africa, something happens which proves us wrong.
Then we are forced to peel another layer from the
onion in an effort to reach closer to the center.
The effort requires considerable patience and the
understanding that often we may not achieve complete understanding.
It is, in fact, not unusual for our Black African
friends to tell us what they believe we want to hear.
This is not the case
with President Mbeki.
Those who know him rate him an intellectual with
a long view history and vision of the future. How, then,
can he take the position he takes?
We believe he is reflecting
his cultural background, in which matters of a sexual nature
are not discussed publicly and are never discussed between
youth and their parents.
Because, in South Africa, much of the rapid expansion
of HIV/AIDS is a result of sexual transmission and of uninformed
sex practices, the absence of open dialogue and of private
discussion among youth and their parents and elders is catastrophic.
When a young person dies of AIDS in a Black South
African township Ă even an urban township such as Guguletu
Ă the cause of death is not revealed.
This denial of what
is known and increasingly understood in the Western world
has political overtones, as well. In the Black African world, AIDS is sometimes characterized
as an ˝AMERICAN INVENTION TO DISCOURAGE SEX.ţ In other words,
rumors of AIDS and of AIDS transmission through unprotected
sex are insidious examples of American meddling and imperialism.
We once saw President
Mandela handed a speech on the subject of AIDS to read to
an all-white, Cape Town audience. His discomfort was so apparent that he apologized to the audience
and explained that this was not an easy subject for a man
of his cultural background to speak about.
He then went on to read the speech, word for word.
He would have been unable to deliver that speech
to a Black South African audience.
Moreover, it must
be known that Black African communities practice traditional
healing and various forms of witchcraft.
The myths and secrets of the spiritual/ancestral
world are plentiful, powerful and are seldom revealed. These
secrets and ancestral practices and beliefs are particularly
damaging to contemporary young women and tend to place them
at considerable risk where AIDS infection is concerned.
Thabo Mbeki is a product
of this world and of this cultural heritage.
We believe he confronts a high-risk political tightrope
and is challenged to determine how best to walk it.
Our young Xhosa staff
in Cape Town has contributed dramatically to our understanding
of these township cultural/political realities.
Through them and their continuing research with Black
South African youth, we have glimpsed the despair among
youth with no social or economic prospects at all.
Faced with this reality and hopelessness, why should
they care at all about AIDS?
Why should a young woman or girl insist that a partner
use a condom when she will be labeled a ˝slutţ or an ˝easyţ
mark for others to hear?
How can a ˝first worldţ
approach possibly work in a ˝third worldţ context, where
HIV/AIDS prevention training and education are concerned?
Township youth want to know.
This grasp of reality
and youthful imagination are enabling our young South African
staff to create and to launch very fresh and impactful youth
partnerships which are dedicated to effective HIV/AIDS
prevention/education strategies at grassroots levels.
We are terribly excited
by this imaginative assault on the explosive spread of HIV/AIDS
in a world of denial and of ancestral secrets and taboos,
and we are looking for support for this work.
In a sense, President
Mbeki is a cultural prisoner of his generation.
If only he could approach his nation═s struggle with
HIV/AIDS with the youthful candor and open eyes of our young
South African staff, things could be different.
WHY MIGHT THE AMY
BIEHL FOUNDATION ATTRACT ATTENTION?
We believe the Amy
Biehl Foundation has important points of difference and
uniqueness, which may attract attention in Washington, DC
and elsewhere. Future
editions of our newsletter will explore these points and
their value to our supporters and investors.
In this NEWSLETTER,
we shall explore our commitment to migrating what works
in South Africa to communities of interest in America.
We have asked Molly Biehl Corbin to tell a story
set in our own Coachella Valley, California.
A SUCESSFUL MIGRATION
OF ˝READY RESPONDERSţ
Through my work in
disadvantaged communities in New Orleans and San Diego,
I have participated in some and learned of numerous other
violence prevention programs. Implemented by a variety of non-profit corporations and
agencies, some efforts have met success and others failure. The successful programs I═ve witnessed are those that: are
community collaborations, students help design; are organized
by people with youthful attitudes and people the youth trust;
have the support of the community including their families
and community leaders; provide tangible rewards upon completion;
have applicability in their daily lives; and, of course,
This past April 5th,
I would say that the Coachella Valley witnessed the completion
of a successful violence prevention effort in which the
participants and community should be proud and from which
the community will benefit in the months and years to come.
Nineteen high school
students were recognized for completing a rigorous course
in first aid response.
Each committed to 53 hours of intensive training
which took place after school and on Saturdays.
After satisfactorily completing a written and practical
exam, these students are certified to give advanced first
aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, external defibrillation
WHY WAS THIS PROGRAM
Coachella Valley High
School═s ˝Save the World Clubţ, Washington DC═s PEACE LINKS,
the Riverside County Red Cross Association and the Amy Biehl
Foundation collaborated through sharing their resources
-- be they human, financial, political or professional.
then 26 Ă and finally 19 Ă committed and perhaps unlikely
high school student volunteers looking to meet a
need they saw within their rural community Ă the
lack of timely and adequate response to emergency situations
involving their families, neighbors and friends.
Save the World Club
cofounder Crystal Gonzales, PEACE LINKS═ Esther Pank and
Jenny Growney, Coachella Valley High School teacher Mike
Rosenfeld, and Riverside County Red Cross═ Gayle Smith Ă
each of whom had a can do attitude and a strong rapport
with the youth as they organized various facets of the program
and overcame inevitable obstacles.
Present at the program
graduation celebration were the grassroots organizers, the
high school principal, the Superintendent of Schools, a
reporter from the local newspaper, affiliates of NBC news
from both the Palm Springs and Los Angeles, a representative
from Congresswoman Bono═s office, family and friends of
the graduates, the Biehl family, and Amy Biehl Foundation
Trust South African employee Samora April.
Each graduate received
a t-shirt and 5 certification cards. In addition, each will
be given his or her own first aid kit.
The students requested
this program via expressing concern for the lack of response
by professional medics in emergency situations. Now empowered
to respond themselves rather than waiting helplessly
by, we are certain they will find the training applicable
in their daily lives.
At the graduation
celebration, Jose Bolanos, who scored highest on the written
exam addressed the class. ˝I got into this class so I can
make a difference.
This class, it was hard work but it was a lot of
fun, too.ţ Gayle
Smith of Riverside County Red Cross was responsible for
the actual training of the students.
When asked how she made such a rigorous training
program fun, she responded, ˝I used a lot of humor. They
could tell that I cared about them. I related the training to their home life but tried not to
make it too scary. A mother of five, I tried to be like
What is especially
unique about this effort is the fact that the first aid
training program was conceptualized in South Africa
by the ambulance driver who attended Amy at her death. The program was migrated from one marginalized community seemingly
a world away to another in our own backyard.
We listened to the youth here as we do in South Africa
and heard eerily similar concerns. When they asked for our help, we were delighted to provide
a proven program model which could be adapted to meet the
specific needs of the students in Coachella Valley.
What resulted was a more intensive training program
than ever provided in South Africa.
Also unique was the
opportunity for the youth of Coachella Valley High School
to know they were linked in an international effort. At
graduation, they were able to listen, first-hand, to South
African ready responder Samora April.
Samora, who═s native tongue is Xhosa, spoke in English
to the program graduates who mainly speak Spanish as their
first language. The
room was silent as Samora shared of his experience in being
trained in first aid in Guguletu Township and put forth
ideas as to how the new graduates could make their presence
felt in the community by assisting police and other forms
of security at concerts, fairs and other public gatherings.
The graduates were intrigued and excited to learn
from Samora, and Samora learned from them.
When we left the graduation celebration my parents
and I noted that Samora had a t-shirt in hand and had arranged
to obtain the entire program curriculum to enhance the preparedness
of his ready responders at home.
We have plans to offer
another course for volunteer ready responders at Coachella
Valley High School in the fall.
We look forward to replicating this and other successful
South African program models in other communities where
we are invited and which appear to have appropriate commonalities.
implementation of our grassroots, violence prevention programs
is indeed the Foundation═s top priority. Still, numerous
invitations from elementary schools, middle schools, churches,
and other organizations have been extended to the Biehl
family to make appearances and share on a personal level
about Amy, her Foundations, and other related experiences.
We welcome such invitations and view them as important
˝bridge-buildingţ opportunities. The following excerpt
from Peter═s calendar Ă January thru April 2000 -- alludes
to some but not all of such opportunities.
Passing of Richard C. Shewalter, Linda═s father and
a great friend of the Foundation, in St. Charles, Illinois.
Linda and Peter attend premiere screening of documentary
film ˝Long Night═s Journey Into Dayţ, at Sundance Film Festival,
Park City, Utah. The film -- made by Frances Reid and Deborah Hoffman Ă wins
Grand Jury Prize for documentary film.
Linda, Peter and Molly address Palm Desert Community
Presbyterian Church Women═s Club at Desert Falls Country
Club, Palm Desert, CA.
Peter and Linda meet Tony Monfiletto and Tom Siegel,
Founders of the Amy Biehl Charter School in Albuquerque,
Biehls meet with members of New Mexico State Legislature
in Santa Fe and with members of murder victims═ families
for reconciliation to discuss restorative justice options
to death penalty.
Biehls speak at St. Paul Lutheran and Asbury United
Methodist churches and at Menual School, Albuquerque, in
opposition to New Mexico═s death penalty.
Linda and Peter join 200 people, including US Ambassador
and Mrs. Delano Lewis, at Memorial Service for Zunade Dharsey
in Cape Town.
Biehls tour University of Notre Dame Alumni Group,
headed by Fr. Ollie Williams, through Foundation projects
in Cape Flats.
Biehls speak to over 600 university students on board
the Semester at Sea vessel on its arrival at Port of Cape
Town. Kim Biehl, James Hoffmark, Karra Shewalter, Cathryn
Michalske arrive in Cape Town for a visit.
First annual Amy Biehl Fun Run and Walk held in Guguletu,
co-sponsored by I&J Foods and Guguletu Athletic Club.
Peter, Linda and Sahm Venter (Associated Press Television)
speak to Young Presidents═ Organization (YPO) at its International
University in Cape Town.
Biehls joined by parents of Zunade Dharsey for dedication
and launch of new playing fields and peace parks in informal
settlements of Thembuletu and Bonguletu, near George and
Oudtshoorn. The fields were developed by the Foundation
in partnership with USAID, Geraldine Boone and the people
of Portland, OR.
Biehls hosted at dinner party in South Bend, IN by
Carolyn Wu, Dean, College of Business Administration, University
of Notre Dame. Former
President, Fr. Theodore Hesburgh surprises them with inaugural
presentation of Hesburgh Award for Ethics in Business.
Biehls deliver Ethics in Business Lecture at College
of Business Administration, followed by dinner hosted by
friends Jeff and Liz Bernel and joined by James Davis (Gigot
Center for Entreprenurial Studies), Fr. Ollie Williams,
Biehls visit South African teacher, Malcolm McKenzie,
and faculty and students of Deerfield Academy, Deerfield,
MA. Peter and
Linda enjoy two days of classroom visits, a screening of
˝Long Night═s Journey Into Dayţ and an opportunity to address
Headmaster Eric Widmer and the entire school.
Biehls speak at University of Maryland and are presented
with a leadership award at the James MacGregor Burns Leadership
Africa friends Henry and Liz Reynolds are in attendance.
Peter and Linda join filmmakers Frances Reid and
Deborah Hoffman for first New York screening of ˝Long Night═s
Journey Into Dayţ at Soho═s Film Forum Theatre, followed
by dinner at Vandam hosted by HBO.
Biehls speak to congregation at Unitarian Universalist
Church, Palm Desert, CA.
South African, Samora April, a key staffer of Amy
Biehl Foundation Trust, arrives Los Angeles.
Graduation of first 19 emergency first aid workers
at Coachella Valley High School, following 53 hours of intensive
training by American Red Cross, Riverside, CA.
Instructor Gayle Smith is in tears and parents are
Newport Beach Film Festival, where ˝Long Night═s
Journey Into Dayţ screens to overflow crowd of 600 in two
Biehls and Samora April host members of Coachella
Valley High School═s ˝Save the World Clubţ and faculty advisory
Mike Rosenfeld for a screening of Long Night═s Journey Into
Dayţ followed by pizza and conversation. Samora enjoyed his encounter with Hispanic-American High School
students who are high achievers.
Peter, Linda and Samora deliver two presentations
of ˝A Journey of Pain, Loss and Forgivenessţ to a religious
education conference sponsored by the Archdiosise of Los
Angeles and attended by more than 40,000 people.
Biehls and Samora spend a day at Whittier College,
followed by an evening presentation to students, faculty
and community, in recognition of the College═s forward-looking
Larry Biehl hosts a dinner at San Francisco═s Thanh
Long restaurant for Linda and Peter and Foundation friends
to lay groundwork for fundraising to support Amy Biehl Internships
at Stanford═s HAAS Center for Community Service.
Biehls and Samora spend full day at Stanford University
Ă as panelists in a conference entitled ˝High Impact Philanthropyţ
hosted by the Graduate School of Business, at an African
Roundtable hosted by David Abernethy, at a meeting of this
year═s interns at HAAS Center, at a screening of ˝Long Night═s
Journey Into Dayţ, hosted by Byron Bland at Center for Conflict
Foundation friend, Harry Rowe, hosts Linda, Peter
and Samora for lunch in San Francisco, following a breakfast
meeting with Stanford Business School students with experience
in South Africa, hosted by Sarah Thong.
Molly Biehl Corbin joins filmmakers Frances Reid
and Deborah Hoffman for two screenings of ˝Long Night═s
Journey Into Dayţ at Taos Talking Pictures Festival in Taos,
Biehls made Honorary Rotarians by Newlands Rotary
Club, Cape Town, South Africa.
Free bread distribution on Amy═s birthday.
A WEEK IN CAPE TOWN
WITH PETER AND LINDA
by Kim Biehl
People often ask me,
˝What in the world do your parents do in South Africa?ţ
I have to admit, it is a difficult question to answer.
I spent a week with them there in February.
My plan was to keep a journal of all of our activities
so as to be able to answer this question.
The reality was that I did not have a moment to write!
Months later, here is a brief summary of what life
is like in South Africa for the Biehl family.
I arrived in Cape
Town, along with my fianc│, my cousin, and a good friend
on a Monday night.
Mom and Dad met us at the airport and took us to
a pizza dinner. (Cape Town has great pizza!)
They filled us in on all of the projects and got
us excited about the week ahead.
I fell asleep, feeling excited to get going and to
see all of my South African friends.
The next morning began
for us around 8:30. It began for Dad around 6:00. That is
his quiet time in the office. He makes his phone calls and prepares the day═s itinerary.
Meanwhile, we walked around downtown with Mom. Everyone
recognizes her and calls her ˝Mrs. Amy Biehlţ. We met up
with Dad around lunchtime. Mom and Dad do not normally have
time to eat during the day.
But since we were with them, they made it a point
After lunch, we headed
off to Guguletu. It is truly amazing the way my parents
know their way around.
Guguletu is a maze of streets filled with kids, goats
and dogs. I
should mention that while we were driving, the cell phone
never stopped ringing.
I found this to be funny, since my parents have never
wanted a cell phone. The people calling ranged from township
residents to ambassadors, reporters to musicians.
They all had ideas, projects or questions they wanted
to pose. Mom
and Dad answered all calls and considered every proposition
to be important.
We went to Intshinga
School, which is where my favorite program takes place.
It is an after school program run by a retired teacher
named Mrs. Peter.
The kids all recognize Mom and Dad.
They immediately began to perform for their benefit.
They embarrassed my parents.
They would rather not cause disruption. While we
were there, the cell phone rang. It was a group of students from the Semester at Sea ship who
wanted to tour some of the Foundation═s projects. The problem was, they had no transportation.
My parents offered to pick them up and drive them
to Guguletu. It
is a 15 minute drive and not exactly convenient. Still,
it is important that people see the townships, so off they
After spending the
remainder of the afternoon touring some other projects we
drove the Semester at Sea students back to their ship.
As we made our way back to my parents loft, the phone
began to ring again.
Word had started to spread throughout the ship that
the Biehls had some amazing things happening in the townships.
More students wanted to visit.
Thus my parents made many more trips back and forth
between the Waterfront and Guguletu.
Most of our days were
similar to the first.
One morning we went to a primary school in Khayelitsha
township where Amy═s bread is sold. A woman named Gwen was selling the bread and did so from the
trunk of her car.
The children came pouring out of the school at break
time. Many of them rushed to the car to purchase their bread.
While we took photos (The children love to have their
pictures taken!) my mother discussed some of the logistical
problems Gwen had experienced with the delivery of the bread.
We left the school with Mom promising Gwen that she
would help resolve the delivery issues.
We dashed back to the loft to host a meeting of the
Cape Town Junior Chamber of Commerce.
It was a fascinating group of young people that would
have never come together if not for my parents═ introduction.
I felt Amy═s presence during that meeting. Her strength was in bringing people together in just that same
way and my parents have taken her spirit to heart.
Our craziest days
came toward the end of our trip. On Sunday, February 27th,
we participated in the first annual Amy Biehl Fun Run. We
arrived at the Guguletu stadium at 6:00am.
We registered for the run and watched as people began
to arrive. It
was a wonderful mix of people made up of running clubs,
township youth, friends of our family, and a gentleman who
was awakened by the commotion and decided to walk!
The route wound its way through Guguletu and was
marked by the Boy Scouts.
As we walked, my dad got a call on the cell. It was Lungile, one of the Foundation═s staffers.
He said, ˝Peter, where are you?ţ Dad replied, ˝I═m
on the route! Where else would I be?ţ Lungile informed him
that the Mayor of Cape Town had arrived at the race. Dad said, ˝Well, I═ll see her when I═m finished.ţ
We did eventually
finish, in last place.
The awards were given out and the entertainment began.
Our plan was to get back to the loft to shower and
change by 11:00. We were going to make the four-hour drive to George.
Needless to say, we had a difficult time breaking
away from the event. Everyone wanted to talk to my parents.
They were mobbed by reporters, runners, caterers, kids and
a guy who needed money to get home.
We finally made it to the car at 12:30.
The countryside between
Cape Town and George was astounding!
It ranged from farmland to desert to Oceanside.
We were almost too tired to enjoy it. We arrived
in time for dinner and went to bed very early.
That turned out to
be a good thing. We
started out the next day at 7:00.
We had a quick breakfast and got in the car fort
he 45 minute drive to Oodsthorn.
The Foundation had begun several new projects in
this very poor township.
We went first to the new playing field.
A group of people was waiting there for us.
They were thrilled to meet ˝Mr. and Mrs. Amy Biehlţ.
The women shared with us their ideas for a business
were a sewing group and there were in need of sewing machines.
My parents had promised them the machines only to
learn that there was not enough electricity in the facility
to power them. The
Foundation often encounters such obstacles which have frustrated
my parents but not stopped them from trying.
We left Oodsthorn
to drive to the Thembuletu township in George. We toured
another playing field and the site for the second Community
schedule was extremely tight. We did not spend much time
in any particular place, except the car!
Our guide, named Guguletu, had arranged for us to
have a traditional Xhosa lunch with the Khulani women═s
group. We had
to dash to make it on time.
The lunch was interesting.
It consisted of chicken, beans, a corn dish and Xhosa
beer. My parents,
James and Karra were gracious and ate everything.
Kathryn and myself, being vegetarians, faked it.
We spent just a short time with the ladies before we were
off to our next stop.
Eventually, we made
our way back to Cape Town.
I was able to fit in a few short lunches with some
of my friends. James,
Karra and Cathryn managed to hike Table Mountain.
And, we all had a very enjoyable dinner with Ahmed
Kathrada and his friend, Barbara.
Our trip was too fast, too busy, but very fulfilling.
At the airport waiting to depart, I started to cry.
I tried to explain that I always feel like I═m leaving
Amy behind in Cape Town.
My dad said, ˝I know what you mean. I still feel
like I disconnect from Amy just a bit when I leave, even
after all of this time.ţ
˝What in the
world do your parents do in South Africa?ţ The answer is,